Basic Knowledge of Laptop and Computer Technology, RAM, ROM and Storage

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Basic Knowledge of Laptop and Computer Technology, Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes that data. Types of Computers

Desktop sits on a table in the office or at home. They tend to be slightly cheaper than laptops or ultra books. The flip side is that they are space consuming.

All in one is an efficient compromise between laptops and traditional desktop PCs. They too are less expensive. They provide he user a large screen to work with. They are space saving, clutter free, stylish and easy to use.

Notebooks replace the desktop in size. They have similar features as a desktop. Laptops are used for mobility. It has a long battery life and comes in attractive designs. They are also known as notebooks.

Mini laptops They are smaller and lighter than laptops and are primarily meant for travel. They are less expensive and are used for basic computing, like internet surfing and word processing. The drawback though is that they have no CD or DVD drive and have less computing power.

Ultra Books replace the laptop in size and portability. They have similar features as a laptop but are lighter and slimmer. The drawback of the ultra book is the limited connectivity. The LAN & VGA ports are available only in few models. They are expensive

Basic Knowledge of Laptop and Computer

Central Processing unit (CPU): Comprises of the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit (CU). The ALU carries out the  arithmetic and logical operations.

The processor is called the brain of the computer. The number of cores in the processor helps the user for getting better performance during multitasking. Single core performance for emails, basic browsing, maps, 2D Games etc. Dual core performance for Flash enables browsing, multi tasking, video chat etc. Quad core performance for console class gaming, faster browsing and media

Intel and AMD are the brands that manufacture the processors.

Cache Memory is an extremely fast memory that is built into a computer’s central processing unit (CPU), or located next to it on a separate chip. It is used by the CPU as a storage place for processing instruction. The cache that is built into the CPU itself is called Level 1 Cache (L1) The cache that resides on a separate chip next to the CPU is called Level 2 Cache (L2) .

Random Access Memory (RAM) is used to run the operating system. It is the working memory used by applications for processing. It is very important for multi tasking. The data from the RAM gets wiped out when the computer shuts down. The latest
version of RAM is DDR 4 i.e. double data rate. LPDDR4 RAM used in Mobile.

Hard Disk is a mass storage device used to store user data permanently. The hard drive sizes vary considerably, from about 500 GB to 2TB. This can be supplemented with an external HDD There are 2 variants disk drive and solid state. The solid state hard drives are mostly used in tablets For private circulation.

Mechanism typeSolid nand flash basedMagnetic rotating plate
Weight (2.5″)47gms100gms
Operating Temperature25 to 85 degrees5 to 55 degrees
Power consumption0.5watts per hr2.1 watts per hr
System boot time36 sec1min 3 sec
This data may be different from actual, it is only for knowledge that how much difference is there between SSD and HDD.

Graphics Card is a display adaptor that works to display images on the monitor. They can be in built or installed separately. Games are one of the most demanding applications which require the use of graphics card. Nvidia and ATI Radeon are widely used brands for graphics card.

Optical Disc Drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. The data can be CD, DVD or Blu-ray.

Operating Systems provide a software platform on which other programs/application run. A GUI Operating System contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse.

Windows family of operating systems developed by Microsoft is a series of operating systems produced for use on personal Computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs.

Windows 11 has been designed to take advantage of the latest technology. It simplifies everyday work, works the way we want it too and makes new things possible.

It has a smarter search all you need to do is type in the Cortana search box, and you’ll see results instantly, grouped by category-documents, pictures music, email, and programs. It also give a better desktop. Windows 10 gets you around your PC faster than ever The task bar has bigger buttons and full-sized preview and you can pin programs to it for one-click access. Jump Lists provide shortcuts to files, folders.

Windows 8, 10 live tiles are interactive apps that use the internet to bring live updates to users of Windows. The magnifier feature can zoom in or out the font and screen icons. The narrator will speak any text that you put your finger on (for tablets and touch screen

Types of displays

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is thin and stylish. It is energy efficient and shows crisp images. Relatively light weight, especially in large sizes. They give a larger display area. The flip side is that it is fragile and has limited viewing angle. Colour rendition may be limited or inconsistent. The moving images may smear.

LED is relatively more expensive. It is thinner than an LCD. Consumes low power. It is brighter and provides detailed pictures. There is good colour rendition and moving images are clearer.

Ports of a computer

USB stands for Universal Serial Bus, USB ports allow all electronic devices to be connected via cables to a computer for data transfer at high speed.
HDMI The advantages of HDMI is even more pronounced over DVI because HDMI also carries digital audio & video in single cable.
Firewire is another versatile port that you can use for connecting many peripherals. This way, it competes with the USB port.
RJ45: This connection is used to connect to network or internet connection.

Features of MS Office 365
  • Sign-in into office where you need it
  • Office for whole family
  • Save & share files from cloud
  • Improved “save as” option
  • Easier file sharing

What is the Central Processing Unit (CPU)?

The CPU is the brain of the computer and consists of the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit (CU). The ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations, while the control unit manages the execution of instructions.

What are the different types of processors?

Processors can have different numbers of cores, which affect their performance during multitasking. Single-core processors are suitable for basic tasks, while dual-core and quad-core processors offer better performance for more demanding tasks such as gaming and multimedia processing. Intel and AMD are popular brands that manufacture processors.

What is cache memory?

Cache memory is a fast memory that is built into the CPU or located next to it. It is used by the CPU as a storage place for processing instructions. There are different levels of cache memory, including Level 1 Cache (L1) built into the CPU and Level 2 Cache (L2) that resides on a separate chip next to the CPU.

What is Random Access Memory (RAM)?

RAM is used by the computer to run the operating system and applications. It is the working memory used for processing data. RAM is important for multitasking and the latest version is DDR4. Laptops and mobile devices often use LPDDR4 RAM.

What is a hard disk?

A hard disk is a mass storage device used to store user data permanently. Hard drive sizes vary and can be supplemented with an external HDD. There are two variants: disk drives and solid-state drives (SSD). Solid-state drives, mostly used in tablets, provide faster data access compared to traditional disk drives.

What is a graphics card?

A graphics card is a display adapter that works to display images on the monitor. It can be built-in or installed separately. Graphics cards are especially important for demanding applications such as gaming. Nvidia and ATI Radeon are popular brands for graphics cards.

What is an optical disc drive (ODD)?

An optical disc drive is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves to read or write data to optical discs such as CDs, DVDs, or Blu-rays.

What are the different types of displays?

There are different types of displays used in laptops and computers. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is thin, energy-efficient, and shows crisp images. LED displays are relatively more expensive but provide brighter and detailed pictures.

What are some common ports of a computer?

Common ports found on computers include USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports for connecting electronic devices, HDMI ports for high-speed data and audio/video transfer, Firewire ports for connecting peripherals, and RJ45 ports for network or internet connections.

What is MS Office 365?

MS Office 365 is a suite of productivity software that includes programs like Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Outlook. It offers features such as sign-in from anywhere, file sharing from the cloud, and improved “save as” options. It is available for personal and family use.

What is a laptop?

A laptop is an advanced electronic device that is designed for portability and can be used for various computing tasks, such as browsing the internet, creating documents, watching videos, and playing games.

What are the different types of computers?

There are several types of computers, including desktops, all-in-ones, notebooks, mini laptops, and ultrabooks. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of size, portability, and performance.

What is a desktop computer?

A desktop computer is a computer that sits on a table in the office or at home. It tends to be slightly cheaper than laptops or ultrabooks but takes up more space.

What is an all-in-one computer?

An all-in-one computer is a combination of a laptop and a traditional desktop PC. It offers a large screen, space-saving design, and ease of use. They are generally less expensive than traditional desktop PCs.

What is a notebook?

A notebook is a type of laptop that is smaller and lighter than a desktop. It has similar features to a desktop but is designed for mobility. Notebooks are often used for their long battery life and attractive designs.

What are mini laptops?

Mini laptops are smaller and lighter than regular laptops and are primarily meant for travel. They are less expensive and are suitable for basic computing tasks such as internet surfing and word processing. However, they may have limitations such as no CD or DVD drive and limited computing power.

What are ultrabooks?

Ultrabooks are similar in size and portability to laptops but are lighter and slimmer. They offer similar features to laptops but are more expensive. However, some ultrabooks may have limited connectivity options.

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